- Learning to Adapt With A Professional Reading Program
- Boyd and Beyond 2013
- Guest Post by Tyana Daley: Developing Law Enforcement Leaders and Nurturing Smart Thinkers
- Somewhere Between Born and Made: Where Good Leaders Come From
- Is Today Your Day?
- Guest Post by John Demand: “You look for the bomb…we look for the bomber”
- What Do OODA Loop’s Mean to the Street Cop, Wanting To Become “World Class” Tacticians?
- The Psychology of a Boston Marathon Terrorist: 10 Questions for a Retired Marine
- Watching Boston “Work Together” Made Me Proud to Be a Police Officer
- What Makes a "World Class" Tactically Proficient Peacekeeper?
- Tactical Decision Games to Increase Speed and Maturity of Problem Solving: The Lessons Learned
- The Path to Better Execution in Seeing, Understanding and Solving Complex Problems is a Learning Organization
- A Systemic Concept for Operational Design: a Robust Tool Law Enforcement Should Use in Preparing for Chaotic Crisis
- How shift debriefings can improve officer safety Published at P1
- Boyd and Beyond Boston 2013: Balancing Pursuasion and Force in The Moral, Mental and Physical Dimensions of Conflict
- Don Vandergriff, Discusses: Misinterpretation and Confusion: What is Mission Command?
- Huddling-Up To Acheive Successful Law Enforcement Outcomes
- Building Cohesive Law Enforcement Agencies That Can Decide In Crisis Situations
- Mistakes ultimately ended ex-LA cop's rampage
- Red Teaming The Workplace Violence Shooter and The "MR. Uncomfortable Factor"
- Top 30 Criminal Justice Blogs of 2012 : LESC is Number 5!
- Showing Up Is Overrated. Necessary But Not Nearly Sufficient. Can Taking An "Interest" In What You Do Enhance Performance?
- Handling Dynamic Encounters...Go Get Him, Or Set Him Up To Get Him...With An Adaptable Response
- Shift Debriefings: How Can We Be More Deliberate, More Disciplined, and More Thorough in our Approach to Learning?
- AOW Card Deck Lesson 6: Provoke Your Adversary’s Reaction
- Does Mass Violence Unfold Randomly and Chaotic or is There Hidden Order We Can Leverage in Our Prevention Efforts?
- Police One Column: 13 questions to answer in 2013: What has 2012 taught you about officer safety and effectiveness?
- Take Small Steps, Towards, Lifelong Learning In 2013
- Positive Adaptive Leadership...Tools and Tips and Critical Questions To Explore in 2013 Inspired by Many Of Those I Follow
- AOW Card Deck Lesson 5: Sheath Your Sword
- AOW Card Deck Lesson 4: Score A Small Victory Along The Way
- In Mastering Tactics Shouldn’t We Be Blending Policy and Procedures with People and Ideas?
- Ready, Aim, Ready?
- IMPLEMENTATION (OODA LOOP OR BOYD’S CYCLE) by Sid Heal
- AOW Card Deck Lesson 3: Engage Your Adversary From Many Directions
- AOW Card Deck Lesson 2: Lure The Tiger Out Of The Mountain
- AOW Card Deck Lesson 1: Catch Your Adversary Sleeping
- The Art of War: Sun Tzu Strategy Card Deck…Simple, Yet, Great Tool for Developing Strategic and Tactical Mindset
- "Certain men…come to be accepted guardians and transmitters, instructors, of established doctrines...
- On Vision
- Book Review: The Rite of Return: Coming Back From Duty Induced PTSD
- Restoring the Wounded Spirit
- Deciding Under Pressure…and Fast: You Need to Understand the Concept of “Coup d’oeil”
- How Do Adaptive Leaders Think?
- Capt Evan Bradley on Boyd, Adaptability and Understanding the Bigger Picture in Conflict
- Captain Lindsay Rodman On Boyd and Taking Ownership of What You Do!
- William McNulty-Team Rubicon: Boyd, Applied to Disaster Response
- Heroes Behind the Badge
- Chet Richards On Boyd...Is Your Orientation, Matched to Reality?
- Col GI Wilson on Boyd, Bureaucracy, Insight, Imagination, Intent and Implementation
- What hath Boyd wrought? With Remarks
- John Boyd, Conceptual Spiral, and the meaning of life
- Boyd and Beyond 2012, Quantico, VA — a quickie recap by Scott Shipman
- Finished Gung Ho! The Corps Most Progressive Tradition
- Dangerous Minds – The Relationship between Beliefs, Behaviors, and Tactics
- Guest Post: Super Cops - Can we create them??? “Yes you can!”
- "The importance of a proper command system...
- "Leaders gain confidence and become more tactically and technically proficient...
- Help staff practice thinking on their feet to prepare for emergencies
- More On, Gung Ho! Out of Seeming Defeat May Have Sprung Great Potential
- Latest P1 Column: The anatomy of victory (part two): Victory at minimal cost
- Chapter 1 Review of "Gung Ho! The Corps' Most Progressive Tradition
- Latest P1 Column: The anatomy of victory (part one): What does it take to win?
- Proper Police Action Requires...What?
- P1 Column: Patterns of behavior, officer safety, and 'the rule of opposites'
- Be agile and win:
- Why Boyd is Agile
- Destruction & Creation: Are You Locked on One Way of Thinking or Are You Adaptable, Approaching Tactical Dilemmas?
- Book Review: Deadly Force: Firearms and American Law Enforcement, from the Wild West to the Streets of Today
- The power of a handshake!
- Winning at Low Cost: No better friend, no better role model, no better diplomat and, no worse enemy
- "The most efficient way to get the behavior you're looking for is to find positive deviants and...
- Book Review: Police Instructor: Deliver Dynamic Presentations, Create Engaging Slides & Increase Active Learning
- "Organizations by their very nature involves a series of balances...
- "Of every 100 men you send to fight, 10 shouldn't even be there. Eighty are...
- Column at Police One: Mental toughness and the power to adapt
- Mental Attitude Can Be Negative or Positive
- The Anatomy of Victory: What Does It Take To "Win"at Low Cost?
- "They can't understand why their parent organizations didn't better prepare them...
- Counter-Ambush Tactics: Thinking Tactically and Doing What You Know How To Do On The Street
- Train To Make a Difference! A Decrease in Officer Fatalities in 1st Quarter of 2012
- "They prefer to achieve their results by...
- Part 2: Train the brain: Using decision making critiques to leverage lessons learned: Published at Police One
- "Wild animals are taken by scouting, by nets, by lying in wait, by stalking...
- "If one has never personally experience war...
- Chet Richards On: Boyd's Really Real OODA Loop
- Destruction and Creation
- A Video Biography of COL John Boyd
- Book Review: Imagine: How Creativity Works by Jonah Lehrer
- Book Review: Thinking Fast and Slow By Daniel Kahneman
- Train the brain: Using tactical decision games in training Published at POLICE ONE
- OODA Loops: The Explorer Mentality...And Recognizing Patterns of Behavior
- OODA Loop & Human Reaction Time
- The Leaders Ultimate Reward: 'I saw Someone Grow today, and I Helped'
- Where Have All the Warriors Gone? A Spot On Article, Every Cop Should Read
- Should Street Cops, Break Routines...and Think?
- Broken Windows...A Powerful Strategy, When Applied Robustly
- Lessons from SWAT the Street Cop Can Use on The Three Speeds of Operations
- Law enforcement interaction with the dangerously mentally ill
- Tip: Have an 'exit' strategy on vehicle stops
- What Those We Train Say About Us
- Mastering Tactics with Decision Making Exercises and Critiques
- The OODA loop, reaction time, and decision making
- Leaders share the faith...and promote heretics
- COL John Boyd: Building Snowmobiles and a Fine-tuned Situational Awareness
- Mindset and Winning is About Much More than Words, Isn't It?
- Interacting Tactfully and Tactically: Is This a Strategy, Law Enforcement Can Use?
- Emotion verses Strategy: Which Helps You Gain the Position of Advantage?
- "It Never Happens Here" So WHY Do We Train?
- Think 'FAST': A mnemonic to help keep you safe, by John Demand
- PoliceOne.Com Published: Are you prepared to adapt and win on the street?
- Understanding and Developing Adaptive Leadership During Pre-commissioning
- Book Review: If I Knew Then 2: Warrior Reflections
- A VISION AND THE MISSION FOR: THE FUTURE LAW ENFORCEMENT LEARNING ORGANIZATION
- Police Leaders as Educators and Trainers...Inspiring Cops to More Effective and Safe Policing
- You've Got To Have an Ace in the Hole. Are You Prepared to Adapt and Win on the Street?
- What has 2011 Taught You About Officer Safety and Effectiveness?
- Police One, column 'Staying Oriented' article #1: 'Red Teaming' the cop killer
- Mental Toughness and The Competitive Nature of Conflict
- Police Militarization, Professionalism, and the Balance of Persuasion and Force
- Mental Toughness and...The Power to Adapt
- Mental Toughness: Optimistic Enthusiasm as a Form of Realism
- Preparing for Crisis with Tactical Decision Games, After Action Reviews and Critical Question Mapping
- Great Recap of Boyd and Beyond 2011 By Scott Shipman
- Global Warrior Averting WWIII, John Poole's Latest Strategic and Tactical Insights to Protecting the Homeland
- Brain plasticity: A whole new idea for cops
- Boyd & Beyond is on for 14 & 15 October at Quantico.
- "SWARMING TACTICS" Published in the California Association of Tactical Officers official publication CATO NEWS
- Documentary: Massacre at Virginia Tech
- Book Review: TEMPO Timing, Tactics and Strategy in Narrative Driven Decision Making by Venkatesh Rao
- Fine Art, Fine Tuning Situation Awareness and Training Cops to See
- 15 Meters/11Seconds By C Flaherty and AR Green
- Too Focused? You Might Miss Something Important
- Dangerous Body Language: Digging Beyond What You See!
- Swarming & The Future of Conflict by John Arquilla and David Ronfeldt
- Swarming Tactics by Sid Heal
- More On Swarming Tactics...An Option For Law Enforcement
- Dangerous Body Language: Detecting Deception and Danger
- Cops Line of Duty Deaths Rising in 2011 "APPLYING"Lessons Learned
- Cops, Security, Citizens Need to Be Aware: Does the Climate & Environment Shift in the Wake of bin Laden's Death?
- Progress, Interrupt and Neutralize (P.I.N.) Swarming Techniques For The Tactician
- Should We Be Thinking Like the Bad Guys?
- Meet Officers Lewis and Clark-Exploring Situational Awareness
- Dangerous Body Language,The Boyd Cycle and Winning on the Street
- Dangerous Body Language: A Thousand Words...None Spoken! The Nose, Mouth and Lips
- The 10% of Mindset
- The 3 P's in Extreme Close Quarters Training: Pre-Assault Indicators, Precognitive Programming and Proximity
- Tactical IQ: Using "SURPRISE" to Set the Tempo of Confrontation.
- Tactical IQ: "FRICTION" Why is the Simplest Thing, So Difficult?
- Dangerous Body Language: A Thousand Words...None Spoken! Darting Eyes
- Operation Bold Strike: Follow Me Training Support Package
- Follow Me!!! Creating and Nurturing Tactical Decision Makers With Combat Tested Methodologies
- Training the Whole Circle: Blending Boyd's Cycle and Cooper's Color Codes
- Dangerous Body Language: A Thousand Words...None Spoken! "Gaze Avoidance"
- From OODA to AAADA ― A cycle for surviving violent police encounters
- Dangerous Body Language: A Thousand Words...None Spoken! The Thousand Yard Stare
- Baltimore Police Sergeants Training Using Adaptive Leadership Methodology with Don Vandergriff's AAR
- Achieving Outcomes on the Street with Integrity, Building Loyalty and Mutual Trust
- Intersecting Ideas from Cross Disciplines...and Taking Boyd's Theories Beyond
- Tactical IQ: Developing "Fingertip Feel" Shaping and Reshaping Dynamic Encounters and Gaining the Advantage
- Reducing Law Enforcement Misfortunes...What About the Street Officer?
- Can technology suck your brain dry?
- Organizational Culture: Is Yours Congruent with What You Do?
- Fighting Complacency Reminder: Nothing We Do is Routine, NOTHING!!!
- Street Level Red Teaming: The Cop Killer
- Street Level Red Teaming: Assessing The Situation From the Adversarial Point of View
- Take A.I.M. and Prepare To Win Dynamic Encounters
- Don't Charge Police for Mistakes
- What is a Threat?
- Benefits of Conditioning Our Decision Making...The Boyd Cycle
- Superior Situational Awareness and Decision Making...Attributes And Skills of Full Spectrum Officers
- Earning "The Right to Lead" With Character and Courage
- JUSTIFIED: Are You Serious? The Balancing Act of Persuasion, and Reasonable Force
- Adaptive Leader Methodology: An Alternative for Better Outcomes
- When Do We Teach the Basics?
- Evolving Threats Small Arms and Small Unit Swarming Tactics as Tools of Terror...Are We Up To the Challenge?
- Positive Leadership: Invest in People Building a Culture of Innovation
- Harnessing The Street Cops Wisdom: Taking Whole of Conflict...And Effective Full Spectrum Responses
- Beyond Active Response: An Operational Concept for Police Counterterrorism Response
- The Badge: Much More Than a Piece of Medal
- Wellbeing Check to Knife Attack: Anticipation-The Double Edged Sword and its Affect on Winning and Losing, Up Close and Personal
- Tactical IQ: Fast Transients Maneuvers and Manipulating the Tempo of Conflict
- Leadership By Wandering Around!
- Defeat into Victory: Battling a Tough Climate with Faith, Perseverance and Lessons Learned
- Evolving Threats and the Fourth Generation Warfare Problem Here at Home
- We were ready, they weren't...40 + Years after Newhall, Are We Applying Lessons Learned?
- When Violence Prevention Fails, Planning Must Enhance Strategy
- After Action Review: Is It a Tool Used to Learn and Become More Effective or a Tool Used to Punish?
- Maintaining Mental Calmness and Not Losing Our Cool
- Evolution of Strategy and Tactics to Ongoing Deadly Action "Active Shootings" and Operational Art
- Tactical IQ: Interaction, Insight and Imagination, and Initiative...The Building Blocks of Police Operational Art
- Coffee and Conversation: Is "Officer Friendly" a Factor to Consider in Engagements with Our Adversary?
- "Sharpening Our Orientation" and Reducing Officers Killed in the Line of Duty
- Coffee and Conversation: Police Make Mistakes But Seldom Admit Them! What's Reasonable?
- The Tactical Decision Maker: The Devil's Definitely in the Details
- "Self Awareness" The Forgotten Attribute of Decision Making
- Coffee and Conversation: Issues that Affect Law Enforcement and Security: Walking our Talk to Officer Safety
- Coffee and Conversation: Issues that Affect Law Enforcement and Security: The Inevitable Failure of Suburbia?
- Officer Created Jeopardy: Reduce it with a Strategic and Tactical Mind
- Law Enforcement and the Utility of Force...Why Cops Can't Shoot Like the Lone Ranger?
- Tactics: Applying Methods to Madness
- Dealing with Conflict, Violence and Crises: by Fred Leland
More On Swarming Tactics...An Option For Law Enforcement
Submitted by Fred on Sun, 05/15/2011 - 3:21pm.
I just received the spring 2011 edition of The Tactical Edge, the official publication of the National Tactical Officers Association. In this edition there are several great articles including a break down on the September 1st 2010 Discovery Channel Incident that involved a lone male and eco-terrorist who walked into the Discovery Channel lobby fired 2 shots, wheeled in 3-duffle bags, removed and then strapped a suicide vest on, took over 100 hostages for a several hour standoff until he was stopped by police.
There is also an article on the Intelligence function in the tactical operations center, another on emergency chemical agent plans and a very interesting piece titled; “Convergence: The blurring of crime and war (I will blog on this later). The NTOA publication also has article on developing more effective training programs, “Is your firearms program complete?” great article on evolving your departments or units firearms training programs so they prepare cops by developing the skills necessary (both cognitive and physical skills). They also have a host of upcoming training programs that would benefit any officer or response team. They also have a section on physical fitness. This month’s topic is “Fighting Fitness” and explains …physical training at a high level can only be accomplished when you battle the parts of your mind that tells you that you cannot do more, that you cannot push harder, that you cannot keep going.” Tactical Emergency Medical Support and a great article by Dr. Alexis Artwohl on Achieving Expertise are all offered in this edition of the Tactical Edge, plus more.
I have been a member of the NTOA for about ten years now and in my view the organization and the publication are outstanding and offer much to law enforcement.
More On Swarming Tactics…An Option For Law Enforcement
Swarming Tactics by Sid Heal an article in this edition of The tactical Edge that caught my attention. We have been discussing and beginning to train street cops in utilizing the method of swarming, also known as converging tactics over the last couple of years. Also I just recently posted an article “Progress, Interrupt and Neutralize (P.I.N.) Swarming Techniques for the Tactician” that’s Sid’s article augmented. In the article Sid Heal explains;
“Some types of conflicts are exceptionally difficult and dangerous, none more so that an active shooter situation. History has shown that the vast majority of casualties resulting from these types of incidents occur within the first few minutes of the incident. Moreover, most of these shooters have no intention of surviving the confrontation, either by committing suicide or being killed by police. The suddenness and extreme violence of such attacks coupled with pernicious nature of the suspect(s) requires a response tightly focused on quickly preventing further injuries to potential victims.”
Because urgency is the critical factor in these situations, conventional tactics that involve containments, negotiations and massed assaults are far too sluggish to prevent further casualties. One tactics that provides such a rapid response is called “swarming.”
SWARMING is described as engaging an adversary from all directions simultaneously. The technique is nothing new. The American Indians on the North American frontier, Alexander the Great and Genghis Khan used the techniques to outwit and outpace lager and more highly trained adversaries. In more recent time the Vietcong during the Vietnam War used the technique against United States troops. In 1993 during peace time operations in what’s known as the Battle of The Black Sea (also known as the Blackhawk Down incident) the Somalis used swarming tactics in their efforts to stop the hostage snatch mission that turned into an 18 hour firefight. In his latest book “Shooter Down” John Giduck explains the police response that involved three response teams swarming the building from 4 different entry points and making entry rapidly in an effort to stop the Virginia Tech Shooter forcing him to take his own life and preventing numerous others from his wrath as they neared the shooters location.
Sid Heal explains swarming like this; “Simply put, a swarming tactic is one in which the scheme of maneuver involves multiple semi-autonomous units that converge on a single target from many directions. The name as well as many of the concepts, is taken from the tactics of insects like ants, bees and hornets and of animals that hunt in packs like wolves and sharks.” Sid Heal explains law enforcement swarming tactics could be used as an option for active shooter and officer needs help situations.
I can envision in theory where street cops could use swarming on some high risk motor vehicle stops as an option to stop known adversaries in a vehicle who are known or have already shown a propensity to use deadly force. I can also see it as an option to violent situations in a home or neighborhood or other outside area with an armed suspect that has already turned violent and continues to evolve in a violent way. Also in high risk warrant service situations swarming could be an option. Note: I said I could envision swarming in theory as an OPTION in these additional circumstances. There needs to be more research and discussion and training on the topic of street cops utilizing swarming as a tactic. Training that creates and nurtures both cognitive and physical abilities that are required in officers utilizing the technique. Swarming is a complex tactic that requires smooth operators, who are able to remain calm under pressure, make sound decisions based on the unfolding circumstances and apply swarming as a tactic because it makes sense. Swarming requires and implicit understanding of the circumstances and an implicit ability to maneuver individually and as a team in a fluid collaborative way towards a threat.
The swarming/converging tactic allows those responding options to progress towards and engage and adversary quickly from multiple directions interrupting and cutting off the adversary’s ability to move about and accessing victims at will. We found it confuses and neutralizes an adversary, at least momentarily, and long enough to change the tempo, allowing responders to gain the advantage and stop the threat. Converging from multiple directions towards and adversary disrupts adversarial plans and actions as they become surprised. Their decision making process slows down as they attempt to figure out “what’s happening.”
Swarming confuses an adversary(s) as they focus on defending one area they become vulnerable in another. In a recent raining exercise where we used swarming as a tactic we saw this happen numerous times as an adversary focused on where he thought the assault was coming he was stopped by an officer converging from another direction with deadly force as the adversary(s) became engaged with a responder from another.
Once the adversary(s) became aware the technique was being used (we ran the exercise several times), the adversaries became prepared but still confused as they attempted to attack and defend simultaneously, as responders converged on their location. There is a powerful psychological factor that takes hold when one believes he is surrounded and unable to move to and from as he wishes.
Another positive factor swarming offers is when you respond and converge from multiple directions, you also cut off possible escape routes and you encounter victims and potential victims quicker. This allows responders to quickly point out evacuation routes for those attempting to escape or cover/lockdown positions as the circumstances uncertain as they are may dictate. You also encounter downed seriously injured victims quickly where you can either make a mental note of their locations for recue reams and emergency medical treatment when the threat is stopped or communicate the location to tactical emergency responders (TEMS) as you continue to maneuver towards the threat. This does require superior situational awareness and rapid threat recognition. Tactical judgment is crucial as you attempt to way a friendly victim from a potential foe.
Sid Heal explains; “swarming offers speed of execution and it does not rely on static containment methods.” This means a high level of trust amongst those responding and those in charge. Collaboration is more important than command and control. Here is where true decentralized control becomes more, much more than a buzz word as decision must be made from the bottom-up by those closest to the situation. What Sid calls “contemporaneous collaboration” is critical when using swarming tactics.
There are also some disadvantages to swarming. Some of the challenges are that swarming requires highly robust communications and there is a potential friendly fire situation that may arise as teams maneuver from different directions and converge on a target. Superior situational awareness and surprise are elements that in my view must be sought when implementing swarming tactics especially with multiple adversaries as they may be able to use the technique of swarming themselves to stop your ability to maneuver. Superior situational awareness involves having more information; (unit locations, activity, intent, etc about the adversary than he has about you.
Surprise I will use a definition from the Marine Corps Warfighting manual for explanation; “By surprise we mean a state of disorientation resulting from an unexpected event that degrades the enemy’s ability to resist. We achieve surprise by striking the enemy at a time or place or in a manner for which the enemy is unprepared. It is not essential that we take the enemy unaware, but only that awareness came too late to react effectively.”
Sid Heal closes the article with this statement and I concur.
“In spite of the difficulties in employing such complex tactics, swarming provides advantages that cannot be achieved by other means, especially speed of execution. Since the immediate objective in responding to an active shooter is to prevent further casualties, any interference or disruption of the suspects plans works in favor of the innocent victims and the authorities alike. Notwithstanding, the value of preparation and training cannot be overestimated.”
To read the complete article Swarming Tactics by Sid Heal and the full current issue of The Tactical Edge, you will have to join the NTOA. The cost will be well worth the money spent as they continually put out great and very useful information for law enforcement in an effort to make us both safer and more effective.